There are, generally speaking, three kinds of warranty: Exemption or exclusionary clauses are the opposite of warranties, exempting persons from liability that would ordinarily apply to them under the law, or limiting their liability. The object of the party seeking to adduce such extrinsic evidence is usually to enforce the contract as redefined or, at any rate, to rely upon the contractual force of the additional or varied terms, as established by the extrinsic evidence.. They are binding on the parties without their having made any explicit agreement as to the points in question. This classifactory scheme for agreements comes from Afrikaans legal writing which in turn comes from Dutch. The Will must be in …  Because the exercise of an option to purchase immovable property is usually by acceptance of the substantive offer, both the option and the substantive offer must be in writing. A bailment contract is an agreement whereby one party temporarily hands something to another for safekeeping, with an undertaking from the second party that he will care for that thing as a reasonable person would. If Jaylynne undertakes to cut down the tree in return for the money, the agreement is not conditional: Jaylynne is bound to perform her side of the bargain. For example, where land is sold, an obligation to pay the costs of transfer is, in the absence of express provision to the contrary, imposed by law on the seller. The question is whether upholding the relevant clause or other term would conflict with the interests of the public as a result of extreme unfairness or other policy issues; in other words, whether a contractual provision, in view of its extreme unfairness or other policy considerations, conflicts with the interests of society. Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Alfred McAlpine v Transvaal Provincial Administration, Odendaalsrust Municipality v New Nigel Estate Gold Mining, Government of the Republic of South Africa v Fibrespinners & Weavers, Union Government v Vianini Ferro-Concrete Pipes, Holmdene Brickworks v Roberts Construction, Willowdene Landowners v St Martin's Trust, Haynes v King William's Town Municipality, nemo plus iuris ad alium transferre potest quam ipse haberet, Concrete Products v Natal Leather Industries, Electric Process Engraving and Stereo Co v Irwin, Peters, Flamman and Company v Kokstad Municipality, Alfred McAlpine & Son (Pty) Ltd v Transvaal Provincial Administration, Bay Loan Investment (Pty) Ltd v Bay View (Pty) Ltd, Benson v SA Mutual Life Assurance Society, BK Tooling (Edms) Bpk v Scope Precision Engineering (Edms) Bpk, Bonne Fortune Beleggings Bpk v Kalahari Salt Works (Pty) Ltd, Cinema City (Pty) Ltd v Morgenstern Family Estates (Pty) Ltd and Others, Datacolour International (Pty) Ltd v Intamarket (Pty) Ltd, Durban's Water Wonderland (Pty) Ltd v Botha, First National Bank of SA Ltd v Lynn NO and Others, First National Bank of SA Ltd v Rosenblum and Another, Golden Cape Fruits (Pty) Ltd v Fotoplate (Pty) Ltd, Government of the Republic of South Africa v Fibrespinners & Weavers (Pty) Ltd, Government of the Republic of South Africa v Thabiso Chemicals (Pty) Ltd, Hepner v Roodepoort-Maraisburg Town Council, Holmdene Brickworks (Pty) Ltd v Roberts Construction Co Ltd, KPMG Chartered Accountants (SA) v Securefin LTD and Another, MacDuff & Co Ltd (in Liquidation) v Johannesburg Consolidated Investment Co Ltd, Minister of Education and Another v Syfrets Trust Ltd NO and Another, Motor Racing Enterprises (in liquidation) v NPS (Electronics) Ltd, Nedcor Bank Ltd v Hyperlec Electrical & Mechanical Supplies CC, Odendaalsrust Municipality v New Nigel Estate Gold Mining Co Ltd, Palm Fifteen (Pty) Ltd v Cotton Tail Homes (Pty) Ltd, Peri-Urban Areas Health Board v Tomaselli and Another, Putco Ltd v TV & Radio Guarantee Co (Pty) Ltd and Other Related Cases, Santos Professional Football Club (Pty) Ltd v Igesund and Another, Soja (Pty) Ltd v Tuckers Land and Development Corporation (Pty) Ltd, Swartz & Son v Wolmaransstad Town Council, Thoroughbred Breeders' Association v Price Waterhouse, Tucker's Land and Development Corporation v Hovis, Tucker's Land and Development Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Strydom, Union Government v Vianini Ferro-Concrete Pipes (Pty) Ltd, Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co Ltd v Consolidated Langlaagte Mines Ltd, Willowdene Landowners (Pty) Ltd v St Martin's Trust, World Leisure Holidays (Pty) Ltd v Georges, Institution of Legal Proceedings Against Certain Organs of State Act, Contracts in Administrative Law: Life after Formalism, Peri-Urban Areas Health Board v Tomaselli, Victoria Falls and Transvaal Power v Consolidated Langlaagte Mines, Bay Loan Investment (Pty), Ltd v Bay View (Pty), Ltd, "The Demise of the Exceptio Doli: Is There Another Route to Contractual Equity? The hierarchical nature of the exercise has also been criticised. Any company operating in the South African market can use eSignatures as a signing method, and they are treated equally as handwritten signatures. The fiduciary security cession is an ordinary cession of a personal right as security coupled with a fiduciary agreement, which is an ordinary contract. When, therefore, the contract as written is lacking or incomplete, there is no problem with then referring to extrinsic evidence.